In this article, we will examine the results of a brief study of citizens’ attitudes, while developing the degree of exchange and satisfaction that exists of street music in Spain.
The continuous regulations and the new use of urban spaces have added value street music as artistic and cultural category. The public, in addition to establishing the criteria surrounding this musical practice, exposes the problems of social coexistence that this activity generates.
Keywords Public Space; Street Art; Urban sociology; street music
Piotrkowska street is the centre of Łodz. A continuous axis of more than 4 km that runs through the territory from north to south. A long shopping street divided into two clearly differentiated sections. The first from Wolności Square to Centrum Piotrkowska (approx. 2km and cross section between 16 and 24m). The second from Centrum Piotrkowska to Niepodległości square (approx 2.2 Km and cross section between 25 and 30m). From the very beginning, the street was the central axis around which the city was developing, and its development spontaneously gave the present shape to its centre.
In the second section of the street, trams circulate and, despite having some important heritage facilities such as the “White Factory”, the former headquarters of the Karol Scheibler industries and today the headquarters of the Central Textile Museum, it does not have the recognition that the first stretch.
The first section of the street is the one that appears in all tourist guides, is the commercial and cultural heart of the city, a favourite meeting place for Łódź residents and tourists. Here festivals, concerts, sporting events, parties and fairs take place.
Piotrkowska street still is flagship of the urban regeneration processes in Łódź, along with Manufaktura, and the mega urban regeneration project Nowe Centrum, with the city’s new central station, the EC1 cultural complex, and the expansion of the University of Łódź campus. Territory in which the Expo 2022 was to be developed, which will finally be held in Buenos Aires. Piotrkowska’s urban regeneration process clearly incorporates a public art strategy. The particularity of this strategy lies in its contents, specifically those who propose, manifest or emphasize the “pride of the city”.
Piotrkowska street; Lodz; Urban Regeneration; Public Art; Public Space
Barranquilla, a city located in an intertropical geographical latitude on the left bank of the Magdalena’s River mouth, is constituted as a conglomerate of pieces due to its urbanization processes. Processes that began an accelerated urban development during the first decades of the 20th century, without an Urban Plan for the management of its vast territory. In the absence of this, bourgeois neighborhoods are drawn up to allocate European Immigrants by the time that other informal neighborhoods appear spontaneously to allocate local and regional immigrants. Among the bourgeois neighborhoods, El Prado neighborhood stands out, developed according to the urbanistic principles of the Modern Movement, following the Garden City model, it constitutes the main urban landmark of the city in the 20th century.
That is how El Prado is planned with a continuous urban layout and built in each of its properties, houses, and buildings of architectural styles like those built in the north American and British cities. Among these buildings, which are now patrimonial, stands out: the construction of fifty-four isolated houses for the Barranquilla elite, the El Prado Hotel and the opening of the Country Club. The passing of time has generated functional transformations in the El Prado neighborhood that have modified its symbols and imaginaries. However, the declaration as an Asset of National Cultural Interest, through Resolution 0087 on February 2, 2005, has prevented the structural modification of its architectural heritage pieces, front gardens, courtyards, and most of the plant species, as well as the urban layout.
Nowadays there are a confluence of integrated and complementary manifestations that can be lived in the neighborhood and are conjugated with cultural activities developed in the urban space, activities that are linked with cultural and artistic scenarios which by the passing of the time have been set up in the neighborhood. This confluence has generated a synergy between the Garden City model, the typical daily residential life of the Caribbean that inhabits part of the architectural heritage, the culture hosted in heritage buildings and the wide open public spaces, reaffirming the living as a condition to be considered from the heritage understanding as a matter of future. An understanding that, also puts in value the human manifestations that are less recognized, since with it, the territory acquires other potentials. This is how the initiative of the Museo Vivo El Prado promotes this value as a process of urban regeneration.
The potential value of the living, structured under the concept of Museum, through the process of urban regeneration, includes the El Prado neighborhood as a territory of key opportunities in cultural management and innovation, through the startup of other economic models that exclude the possibility of gentrification. That is how this research is immersed to an in-depth study of urban regeneration, the understanding of the image of the city as a piece of art and the research on the significance of museums in different instances. Concretizing this way, the conception of the Living Museum as the meaning of urban space that firstly, does not take its collection out of context, but in opposition, is generated around itself, taking advantage of the dynamic, symbiotic, socially balanced spatial and cultural systems in which democratic and spontaneous dynamics that develop, grounds and support an economic, natural and cultural equilibrated system. It is not a matter of creating an untouchable inert environment, but to allowing actions and relationships between visitors and inhabitants that enhance those dynamics. This is how The Museo Vivo El Prado, proposed as a cultural and creative innovation district, will not only generate impact and economic retribution, but it will also make possible the transformation of collective imaginaries, founding their identities and consolidating their image. That will be favored by its initial urban planning energized by the ways of living that happens in this heritage environment, letting it being recognized as its “own brand”, from the territorial marketing, in terms of recognition and promotion within the city, by the incentive of the ‘Orange economy’ that is one of the Colombian National Government goals
In this way, the Museo Vivo El Prado is projected from the understanding of the heritage as a matter of future, standing apart from the traditional concept of a museum, this is, as a static, inert and inanimate concept that takes out the collection of its context and uses the buildings as a supports for other artwork. In Opposition the Museo vivo El Prado places the concept of the museum in the dimension of urban management and regeneration combined with creative economy processes, to be handed over to a democratic, public, open-air space. That is how the urban space is the museum itself, its limits are the territory on which the heritage is administratively placed and the sky as its upper border.
PUBLIC ART IN EL PRADO NEIGHBORHOOD (BARRANQUILLA) Exercise in style
This article aims to study the public art of the El Prado neighbourhood in Barranquilla. For this, the general urban context of the city is analysed, including samples of public art from other urban areas of this city.
The article is structured as an “exercise in style” that puts into dialogue “feeling” and “knowing”. A feeling derived from the experience on the territory obtained in three trips to this city, which is complemented by the analytical knowledge derived from the study of the different issues raised. That is why, from the point of view of reading, a differentiation has been made in typography and its colour. The Calibri light font in black describes the sensations of a gadabout, a Spanish term close to the Baudelairdian flâneur but without its elite charge, immersed in territory. The Courier typography in garnet, contrasts the information obtained sensory with the used analysis documentation.
Ending 2017 the Mataro`s City Council launched a contest in order to draw a strategic plan for the centre of the city.
“The aim of the Ideas Contest is to design a strategy and a model that includes economy, urban development, architecture, mobility and economic, cultural and social development in its actions to allow the city centre to be put forward as a motor of cultural activity, of trade and tourism within a single discourse that revalues its legacy of history and heritage. The selected proposal will become the strategic instrument to develop the Mataró Centre Development Strategic Plan”.Continue reading “Mataró Ideal City” by Jordi Henrich, wins the contest for Centre Development Strategic Plan
The public space is structured in four planes: that of the ground, the vertical (not exclusively of facade); the plane of the air and a fourth plane that can be called zenital. The most studied is the horizontal plane, built from infrastructures, elements of urban service (lighting, vegetation, signage, etc.) and interfacing with urban systems (water, electricity, gas, etc.), with the omnipresent elements of paving. (see)
The study of the vertical plane is reduced to the analysis of the facades, although the vertical containment of public space goes beyond the facades. (see)
The spatial memory system in the neighborhood of Bon Pastor (Barcelona). Study of the White Center
Antoni Remesar, Bibiana Crespo
Following the development in 2011 of the Mural of Remembrance in Baró de Viver (Barcelona) the adjacent district of Bon Pastor, showed interest on having a symbolic and artistic element of similar characteristics. However, from the beginning, Bon Pastor neighbours expressed the idea that writing their remembrance should not be displayed on a linear support, but should be distributed by the territory. The research group of the Polis Research Centre started a participatory process (not completed nowadays) within the framework of cooperation agreements between the Centre, the Neighbourhood Association and the local authorities of the Sant Andreu district. At the same time, the theme of this “memory system and space” became a topic to be developed by one of the interdisciplinary and international teams of students of the Master Degree in Urban Design: Art, City , Society of the Universitat de Barcelona. This article presents the progress carried out.
vol 60 nr. 2 . Urban cohesion Improving connectivity between Baró de Viver and Bon Pastor (II)
Industrial estate: enhancing urban cohesion with sustainable criteria
André Luis Berri, Typhanie Cosmao, Miguel García, Paula Pinilla
Contemplating the territory as a network of social relations that transcends geographical boundaries and / or administrative, can approach conceptual schemes that complicate the territory, especially when it is perceived through participant observation and various secondary sources such as primary, the need to connect neighborhoods to achieve a closer territory, compact and sustainable land use planning, in which the polygon is bound no longer as a physical and social border, but as joint bridge between Bon Pastor and Baró de Viver.
Therefore, the industrial area of Barrio Bon Pastor and its strategic location, is a pretext to bring Baró de Viver and Bon Pastor closer. Closer involves knowing both physical barriers and social and hence make urban socio interventions that would mitigate levels of spatial partner and project into a scenario that make visible their practices and implications for the productive and commercial sector for the city segregation, as that tends accessibility and therefore connectivity between Baró de Viver as Bon Pastor and these while the rest of the city.
An intervention in the public space of the industrial estate involves binging and converge both residential dynamic and productive that allows viable processes of urban regeneration, with the premise of urban cohesion, can encourage the scheme of inverted mobility, where the priority is pedestrian, bicycle lane followed, public transport and therefore the private motor transport. In addition to this initiative to prioritize non-motorized mobility, it aims to link through practical design and actions that promotes energy efficiency, as the introduction of arboreal individuals and other local plant elements contribute their textures, smells, colors not only reconfigure the space, but serve to filter the environment, friendlier landscape change and comfort, but additionally granted the estate developments around sustainability.
These urban changes shall aim to maintain the productive and industrial structure as one of the objectives of the Municipal Action Plans, but improving its public space to facilitate urban connectivity and therefore the social and urban cohesion between the two neighborhoods assuming the transition of the industrial estate as a space that commitment to environmental efficiency.
Industrial Estate. “sewing the territory”
Flavia Andolfi, Norka Gouro, María Celeste Pereira, Ma. Fernanda Rojas
This paper explains the process of urban improvement of the Industrial Estate located in Bon Pastor, a neighborhood that is located in the District of Sant Andreu, next to Baró de Viver. To better understand what is the current situation at the urban level we have to go back in time to the year 2004, when for the first time interventions of urban regeneration begin under the Law of Neighborhoods, a law that seeks to improve the quality of life of the inhabitants from Barcelona. These interventions are programmed through comprehensive intervention plans that respond to the local and specific needs of each neighborhood. Due to this, many conflictive areas of Barcelona have been improved, and what is proposed in this dossier, is the urban improvement proposal of the Bon Pastor Industrial Estate, particularly isolated from the territory that surrounds it.
The current situation reflects the need to implement a series of measures to improve the public space; analyzing the problems that define which are the opportunities and potentialities of the territory, for example, how the width of facades of the industries and also of the roads would allow remarkable interventions.
The objective of the project is to “sew the territory”, physically connecting it with the network of public spaces of the adjacent neighborhoods through an integral improvement of the horizontal and vertical planes of the Industrial Estate. Another key point of the proposal is accessibility, taking into account that Design For All has contributed to make Barcelona a city accessible to all, good practices are also taken into account for its application in the area.
The proposed changes are intended to maintain the productive and industrial structure of the polygon by boosting its urban connectivity and transforming it into a bridge between neighborhoods, which aims to renew it with criteria of environmental sustainability where citizen participation is fundamental.
Vol 60, nr 3 . Urban Cohesion. Besòs River Walk
Paseo de Ribera. A connection space (2016)
Robinson Balcazar, José Manuel Nieto Aravena, Orlando Sánchez Armería
Baro de Viver and Bon Pastor are two of the seven neighborhoods that make up the San Andrés district of the city of Barcelona. These neighborhoods are the result of the evolution of a series of urban processes that have as their beginning the migratory waves to Barcelona at the beginning of the 20th century, with the achievement of the problem of social housing at the beginning of the same century and the construction of social housing estates commonly called “cheap houses”.
These settlements were built in 1929 by the architect Xavier Turull, and located in the peripheral areas of the city in isolation without any connection to services and equipment.
Over time, these neighborhoods have experienced a series of processes that have intensified their peripheral and marginal status in the rest of the city. At present, the residential areas of Baró de Viver and Bon Pastor are immersed in areas whose use is predominantly industrial, contributing to the deterioration of the public space and the neighborhood. Added to this, there are a number of projects such as the Ronda Litoral and the road junction of La Trinidad, which increase their condition of segregation and isolation.
Within the framework of the urban design project management workshop, the aim is to address these problems, elaborating proposals for public space, which contribute to improving the condition of the same, and which favor connectivity between the neighborhoods and the city.
Paseo de Ribera. A belvedere for the city
Carla Díaz, José Antonio De Gracia, Thyago Dantas, Laura Cedrés
This paper describes the design process of the public space of the Ribera del Besòs Riverwalk, in the stretch between Barò de Viver and Bon Pastor neighborhoods in the Sant Andreu district. The antecedents of the neighborhoods are exposed, their current situation, the problems detected, the development of the project, the final result obtained supported with plans, sections and views. From the very beginning a very clear space of rupture is detected in the territory: the existence of the Litoral round interrupts the continuity of the urban fabric with the margin of the Besòs river. This produces a certain segregation of neighborhoods with respect to the rest of the city, due to the fragmentation of the urban fabric that forms barriers in certain sectors and prevents fluid access to the riverbank. Taking this as one of the main points to improve, we propose a public space design project based on a walkway where three spaces are distinguished: INTEGRATION SPACE. It is intended to give an answer to the rupture in relation to the city-river relationship, covering the Ronda del Litoral through the creation of a walk that is both visually and spatially related to the river and that allows the union between both margins as well as along the river. SPACE OF CONTINUITY. A linear, directed and dynamic turn is proposed, which accompanies the flow of the river and connects the existing public spaces. In this way a link of spaces that form a readable urban structure is created and perceived through pedestrian mobility, spatiality and landscape
MULTIPROGRAMATIC SPACE. It seeks to achieve an environment where you can walk, observe nature, go by bicycle and practice various recreational, urban and residential activities
The processes of industrialization marked strong transformations that led to a new way of functioning of the city of Barcelona and a new organization of the territory and society, despite the defeat of 1714 and the New Plant Decree that turned it into a military plaza surrounded by walls and fortresses that drowned its possible growth. Barcelona was the focus of the Industrial Revolution in Spain. This was part of a process of reconstruction of the city, since almost a third of its surface was used for the construction of the Citadel, with demolition of houses and re-installation of population, while rebuilding the houses affected by the bombings.
The liberalization of commerce between the metropolis and the colonies allowed Barcelona to trade with the Caribbean islands, enabling a commercial flow and capital accumulation processes that would lead to the installation of Indian manufactures and, subsequently, the gradual installation of factories based on the use of the Steam energy. The industrial strength of Barcelona led to the creation of the Royal Board of Trade that encouraged trade while creating a series of schools necessary for the training of the specialized staff claimed by the new industry.
The paper explores how enlightened thinking about city making, will develop a set of legal and administrative provisions that will impact on a substantial change, both of housing and urban form.