Christo (Christo Vladimirov Javacheff), dead in 2020 and Jeanne-Claude, proposed in 1975, dead in 2009, one of their interventions on the Monument to the Colon of Barcelona. As they point out on their website, “All the unfinished projects of Christo and Jeanne-Claude failed because permission was denied with one exception, the Monument wrapped in Christopher Columbus, Barcelona Project, which began in 1975. Having received two denials, permission was granted by Pasqual Maragall, the mayor of Barcelona, in 1984″.Continue reading An occasional wrapped monument
“Operation Mercedes”: Monument to solidary citizenship
Jordi Henrich, Antoni Remesar
The COVID19 pandemic, which is wreaking havoc on global public health, has also meant the adequacy – temporary so far – of the work procedures in university education, both in what affects the teaching and in relation to to the activities to be developed by the students.
The program of the Project Workshop subject of the Master in Urban Design at the University of Barcelona, planned to focus the project activities on what we can call “Operation Mercedes”, a private urban regeneration project in the Barcelona’s neighborhood of Bon Pastor, consisting of converting 90,000 m2 of the former Mercedes-Benz factory site into a residential and office complex.
According to the General Metropolitan Plan (1976) in force in Barcelona, this site is classified as 22a, that is, “Industrial Zone” and since 2007, when Mercedes-Benz stops operating in this factory, it has been one of the few reindustrialization areas in Barcelona . Its sale to the investment group Conren-Tramway, at the end of 2018, once again resuscitates neighborhood fears about the use of these 9 Ha.
Within the framework of the research project HAR2017-88672-R. and the collaboration agreements with the Bon Pastor’s neighborhood association, for a few years we have been introducing themes of public space in the territory, in the subject “Project Workshop” of the Master in Urban Design. Two goals. The first one to explore ideas for solving problems regarding public space with students -mainly foreigners-, operating the Workshop as a “Laboratory of Ideas” while this activities serve as non-curricular practices. Second objective: to contribute project ideas to the residents of Bon Pastor for the management and negotiation of the various actions to be carried out in the neighborhood.
For this reason, the Workshop work for the 2019-2020 academic year was planned to explore the possibilities of public space in this new Urban Regenration operation. The works of the workshop are developed in multidisciplinary teams responding to the previous training of the students.
When the confinement in Spain is decreed in March, we saw almost impossible the development of the planned activities in an online mode. That is why it was decided to vary the topic, focusing it on a Monument to Solidarity Citizenship -which will allow a more individualized approach to work-, but maintaining the territorial reference of the Mercedes-Benz site.
Barcelona; Bon Pastor; Citizenship; Solidarity; Monument; Operation Mercedes; COVID 19
Maria Augusta Barreiro
The COVID 19 pandemic, detected and officially notified on December 31, 2019 in the Chinese city of Wuhan, has left to date: 408,481 deaths and 7,174,925 infected distributed in 188 countries of the world, of which the most affected are : United States, United Kingdom, China, Spain, Italy and Brazil, according to the latest data from Johns Hopkins University (June 2020). In the short term, this pandemic has become the leading cause of death, surpassing malnutrition, homicides, cancer and other serious diseases.
In this context, the majority of countries declared a state of health alert, being mandatory. During the months that the state of absolute isolation lasted, the old cinematographic technique called split screen (split screen), starred in an unexpected resurrection, becoming the vehicle that allowed us to communicate but also to create and consume culture.
The split screen or “split screen” is undoubtedly one of the most prominent protagonists of the corona virus pandemic that humanity faced as of December 31, 2019, when the news of this was officially notified serious illness from the Chinese city of Wuhan. Almost as old as the cinema itself, the split screen became the tool that allowed us to feel the closeness of our families, work colleagues, fellow students and teachers. It allowed us to express our solidarity, support and company in moments as complicated as those we lived through during the long period of quarantine in hmost countries in the world.
Covid 19; citizenship; solidarity; Barcelona; Bon Pastor; operation Mercedes; monument
Balconies for applause
Tatiana Carolia Chavez
The COVID19 crisis has redefined the way of life, production and work methodologies: however, during this period, the positive attitude of citizens has contributed significantly to overcoming the first part of the crisis, supporting the arduous work of farmers. , cleaners, transporters, bus and subway drivers, replenishers, supermarket cashiers, policemen, health workers, and health personnel, who have formed a first line of struggle to contain the virus and to this is added the discipline of the confined citizenry who have attacked their routines to show support for the courageous dedication of those who have allowed us to maintain everyday life in our lives.
The development of activities in the period of the COVID19 crisis, has redefined the way of inhabiting spaces; Obviously, the adaptation to new circumstances is a challenge, since the idea of public and private is reconceptualized.
Covid 19; citizenship; solidarity; Barcelona; Bon Pastor; operation Mercedes; monument
Rellotge de 20 hores
Nicolas del Real
Monumento en positivo. No es ni a las víctimas, ni a los héroes.
Es la conmemoración de un momento/acción específico, que reúne todo lo demás.
El aplauso de las 20hrs es la instancia en que la ciudadanía se agradece y anima a sí misma
• Las 20:00 serán el elemento central en la significación del monumento. Desde su concepción temporal o geométrica, la idea es conmemorar este acto ciudadano
• Lo que hoy es evidente u obvio, en 20 años puede no serlo tanto
Por otro lado, la abstracción conceptual exacerbada puede llevarnos a la perdida de legibilidad del monumento, característica fundamental del mismo (la conmemoración debe ser comprendida).
El objetivo es lograr que el monumento pueda evocar, no solo un momento cronológico, sino un momento humano
Covid 19; ciudadanía; solidaridad; Barcelona; Bon Pastor; operación Mercedes; monumento
Vol 62, No 7 (2020)
Adequacy of religious heritage buildings. A strategy for improving accessibility in the Historic Center of Puebla Mexico
Adriana Hernández Sánchez, Christian Enrique De la Torre Sánchez
In Mexico, there are few successful examples of improving accessibility conditions in historic centers. The relationship between daily activities, the recognition of human diversity and the conservation of heritage has not been conceptualized. It has not been understood that accessibility is a human right, above the aesthetics and prioritization of the monument, since there are old buildings that retain their original uses and daily affluence such as Catholic temples, which are also considered cultural sites and containers of heritage, art (movable property) and social practices with tourist attraction.
In Puebla, there is the experience of a participatory and inclusive accessibility project where five heritage buildings were involved. They are historical temples that form an itinerary due to their proximity and importance in the original area of the ancient city. In the first section, there is Santa Monica, considered a sanctuary that receives thousands of faithful every week, the former convent of Santo Domingo, where the Rosario chapel is located, and the city’s Cathedral Basilica, connected by the pedestrian street more important of the city, “La 5 de mayo”. Towards the south, completing the route, San Juan de Letrán, “El Hospitalito” and La Soledad are located, with the Amparo Museum near of them. All temples are ancient, dating from the 16th to 19th centuries.
During 2015 and 2016, through joint work between local authorities, universities and civil associations, in addition to the financial support of a local municipal entity and another international entity from the Chilean government, various elements were put in place to improve accessibility, like metalic ramps reversibles, and there were intervened pavements in atriums and accesses. Even in 2020, it is a project of territorial scope for the benefit of all, not only for people with reduced mobility, which allows autonomous and easy-to-use travel, even for those people who need to be assisted by another person, since the percentages of slopes on the ramps range between six and ten percent.
The methodology developed to the work was through the incorporation of an interdisciplinary team, Re Genera Espacio, which promoted the importance of reconverting these heritage buildings into accessible spaces, an action promoted before the custodians of the five temples, as well as establishing a diagnostic analysis of each case and develop the project, in addition to supervising the work in order to realize with local and international regulations and recommendations.
The project was well received by the custodians, after a long process of work, as well as by the rest of the population, which is reflected in a considerable increase in people with disabilities who come to the temples, whether they are parishioners or tourists, and other people with reduced mobility who make use of open spaces, such as atriums and streets. We emphasize that more interventions are required in other spaces considered less important. This is a first step towards more accessible cities, in this case a historic area, which requires urgent interventions to create accessibility networks. This work gave guidelines to other projects that have been developed by the team, not only with motor disabilities, but also with people with blindness and visual weakness.
Accessibility; historical centers; heritage; mobility; accessible route.
To access to manage the symbolic dimension. A citizen right
Antoni Remesar, Javier Vergel Faro
To give meaning to urban space is one of the most relevant activities to allow its conversion into public space, in turning sites into places. For this, it is essential to expand the concept of “accessibility” to the level of “symbolic accessibility” and understand it as one of the new urban rights.
The article develops the concepts of “symbolism a priori” and “symbolism a posteriori” as intervention strategies of meaning of the public space. The first responds to the usual operations from the administration, the second to the popular processes of appropriation of space.
Analysing the experience of creative participation – today in progress – in the Barcelona neighbourhood of Bon Pastor, the article raises the possibility of creating a meeting place between the two types of symbolism, through processes of co-production of public space, specifically its co-design.
Public Space; Public art; Co-design; Citizen participation; Bon Pastor; Barcelona
The COVID19 pandemic has left thousands dead, hundreds of thousands of infected people, a health system on the brink of collapse; the discovery that an important part of the fundamental services are those that have little social consideration and less salary and have had Spaniards confined for 10 weeks – just now the confinement measures begin to flex.
While a supportive citizenship applauds essential services every night at 8 p.m., and organizes solidarity networks to alleviate the “hunger queues” and the devastating effects the pandemic has and will have on popular classes, fleeing the war language used by the political class that has not yet understood that YES the virus understands borders, those of social class. Citizens have clearly understood that this is not a war, that this is not about heroes.
In this context two monuments have just been unveiled in Madrid. One responsibility of the Madrid City Council devoted to those who died during the pandemic – as if the pandemic had ended. The other monument is the sculpture “Heroes of COVID19”.
The City of Madrid monument is a cauldron designed by architect Carlos Rubio Carbajal, located on an island at the beginning of Calle Alcalá towards Sol square. The cauldron is a circular piece of black steel almost two meters in diameter, like a large plate, placed on a prism also of steel. At the foot of the prism a commemorative plaque. As a scenic background of the monument the Fountain of Cibeles and the Palacio de las Comunicaciones – it was the headquarters of the Spanish post office-, an example of the “Monterrey” style of the beginning of the twentieth century and today the seat of the Region of Madrid.
It is precisely in this palace that the regional president inaugurated on May 20th the unfortunate monument “Heroes of COVID19” by the sculptor Victor Ochoa. Formally the work is a real waste, mixture of bronze and resins. Bronze that looks like a cow manure, translucent resin that being kind we would identify with the cinematic “Casper”, but which is rather a bad Orphic representation of the classical moiras or parcas.
It is precisely in this palace that the regional president unveiled on May 20th the unfortunate monument “Heroes of COVID19” by the sculptor Victor Ochoa. Victor Ochoa acknowledges that this work had been in his studio for several years and, how cheaply demiurge, intends to convince us that this work was a premonition. As social networks point out, foreboding nothing, it’s a “botch-up”, a “shit”, an insult to the consciences of good people.
Commercial opportunism of a sculptor – sculpture is not a commission, it is a donation from the sculptor – which was formed in my Faculty, the Faculty of Fine Arts at the University of Barcelona. What a shame.
Very timely, the networks note that the work seems more “an allegory on management of the crisis by Diaz Ayuso ” the regional president who, with the arrogance that characterizes her, threatens the public by saying that this will not be the only tribute that the victims of the coronavirus will have in the region and announced a contest of ideas in which architects will be able to participate , sculptors and entities from the world of culture and architecture to build a memorial in memory “to the victims and heroes who have fought against Covid-19.
We repeat, it’s not about war, it’s not about heroes. It is logical that the symbolic thought of the reactionary right and the far right cannot comprehend it and use the empty rhetoric of the homeland and heroism and the expression of an outdated figuration.
Supportive citizenship doesn’t deserve this. Supportive citizenship does not deserve pain and suffering to be used at the present dramatic moment as a political tool of the most despicable populism.
For the reader who understands Spanish I would recommend following the video of the aesthetic teacher Félix Duque “Several Apostilles: a monument to the “heroes” of the covid that is scary” in this direction https://youtu.be/VGoRK98gyfA
Journal of a gadabout 16 by Dr. A. Remesar
Lefebvre (Lefebvre, Henry, 1973) pointed out the contradictions inherent to the monument. He defends it insofar as it “projects on the ground a worldview and a transcendence, a beyond“; but he rejects it because when it “organizes a space, colonizes and oppresses its surroundings”, (… and) “full of symbols it offers them for contemplation (passive) and social conscience when they are out of date and have lost their meaning“. Continue reading What are the monuments for?
vol 60 nr. 2 . Urban cohesion Improving connectivity between Baró de Viver and Bon Pastor (II)
Industrial estate: enhancing urban cohesion with sustainable criteria
Contemplating the territory as a network of social relations that transcends geographical boundaries and / or administrative, can approach conceptual schemes that complicate the territory, especially when it is perceived through participant observation and various secondary sources such as primary, the need to connect neighborhoods to achieve a closer territory, compact and sustainable land use planning, in which the polygon is bound no longer as a physical and social border, but as joint bridge between Bon Pastor and Baró de Viver.
Therefore, the industrial area of Barrio Bon Pastor and its strategic location, is a pretext to bring Baró de Viver and Bon Pastor closer. Closer involves knowing both physical barriers and social and hence make urban socio interventions that would mitigate levels of spatial partner and project into a scenario that make visible their practices and implications for the productive and commercial sector for the city segregation, as that tends accessibility and therefore connectivity between Baró de Viver as Bon Pastor and these while the rest of the city.
An intervention in the public space of the industrial estate involves binging and converge both residential dynamic and productive that allows viable processes of urban regeneration, with the premise of urban cohesion, can encourage the scheme of inverted mobility, where the priority is pedestrian, bicycle lane followed, public transport and therefore the private motor transport. In addition to this initiative to prioritize non-motorized mobility, it aims to link through practical design and actions that promotes energy efficiency, as the introduction of arboreal individuals and other local plant elements contribute their textures, smells, colors not only reconfigure the space, but serve to filter the environment, friendlier landscape change and comfort, but additionally granted the estate developments around sustainability.
These urban changes shall aim to maintain the productive and industrial structure as one of the objectives of the Municipal Action Plans, but improving its public space to facilitate urban connectivity and therefore the social and urban cohesion between the two neighborhoods assuming the transition of the industrial estate as a space that commitment to environmental efficiency.
This paper explains the process of urban improvement of the Industrial Estate located in Bon Pastor, a neighborhood that is located in the District of Sant Andreu, next to Baró de Viver. To better understand what is the current situation at the urban level we have to go back in time to the year 2004, when for the first time interventions of urban regeneration begin under the Law of Neighborhoods, a law that seeks to improve the quality of life of the inhabitants from Barcelona. These interventions are programmed through comprehensive intervention plans that respond to the local and specific needs of each neighborhood. Due to this, many conflictive areas of Barcelona have been improved, and what is proposed in this dossier, is the urban improvement proposal of the Bon Pastor Industrial Estate, particularly isolated from the territory that surrounds it.
The current situation reflects the need to implement a series of measures to improve the public space; analyzing the problems that define which are the opportunities and potentialities of the territory, for example, how the width of facades of the industries and also of the roads would allow remarkable interventions.
The objective of the project is to “sew the territory”, physically connecting it with the network of public spaces of the adjacent neighborhoods through an integral improvement of the horizontal and vertical planes of the Industrial Estate. Another key point of the proposal is accessibility, taking into account that Design For All has contributed to make Barcelona a city accessible to all, good practices are also taken into account for its application in the area.
The proposed changes are intended to maintain the productive and industrial structure of the polygon by boosting its urban connectivity and transforming it into a bridge between neighborhoods, which aims to renew it with criteria of environmental sustainability where citizen participation is fundamental.
Vol 60, nr 3 . Urban Cohesion. Besòs River Walk
Baro de Viver and Bon Pastor are two of the seven neighborhoods that make up the San Andrés district of the city of Barcelona. These neighborhoods are the result of the evolution of a series of urban processes that have as their beginning the migratory waves to Barcelona at the beginning of the 20th century, with the achievement of the problem of social housing at the beginning of the same century and the construction of social housing estates commonly called “cheap houses”.
These settlements were built in 1929 by the architect Xavier Turull, and located in the peripheral areas of the city in isolation without any connection to services and equipment.
Over time, these neighborhoods have experienced a series of processes that have intensified their peripheral and marginal status in the rest of the city. At present, the residential areas of Baró de Viver and Bon Pastor are immersed in areas whose use is predominantly industrial, contributing to the deterioration of the public space and the neighborhood. Added to this, there are a number of projects such as the Ronda Litoral and the road junction of La Trinidad, which increase their condition of segregation and isolation.
Within the framework of the urban design project management workshop, the aim is to address these problems, elaborating proposals for public space, which contribute to improving the condition of the same, and which favor connectivity between the neighborhoods and the city.
Paseo de Ribera. A belvedere for the city
Carla Díaz, José Antonio De Gracia, Thyago Dantas, Laura Cedrés
This paper describes the design process of the public space of the Ribera del Besòs Riverwalk, in the stretch between Barò de Viver and Bon Pastor neighborhoods in the Sant Andreu district. The antecedents of the neighborhoods are exposed, their current situation, the problems detected, the development of the project, the final result obtained supported with plans, sections and views.
From the very beginning a very clear space of rupture is detected in the territory: the existence of the Litoral round interrupts the continuity of the urban fabric with the margin of the Besòs river. This produces a certain segregation of neighborhoods with respect to the rest of the city, due to the fragmentation of the urban fabric that forms barriers in certain sectors and prevents fluid access to the riverbank.
Taking this as one of the main points to improve, we propose a public space design project based on a walkway where three spaces are distinguished:
INTEGRATION SPACE. It is intended to give an answer to the rupture in relation to the city-river relationship, covering the Ronda del Litoral through the creation of a walk that is both visually and spatially related to the river and that allows the union between both margins as well as along the river.
SPACE OF CONTINUITY. A linear, directed and dynamic turn is proposed, which accompanies the flow of the river and connects the existing public spaces. In this way a link of spaces that form a readable urban structure is created and perceived through pedestrian mobility, spatiality and landscape
MULTIPROGRAMATIC SPACE. It seeks to achieve an environment where you can walk, observe nature, go by bicycle and practice various recreational, urban and residential activities
The liberalization of commerce between the metropolis and the colonies allowed Barcelona to trade with the Caribbean islands, enabling a commercial flow and capital accumulation processes that would lead to the installation of Indian manufactures and, subsequently, the gradual installation of factories based on the use of the Steam energy. The industrial strength of Barcelona led to the creation of the Royal Board of Trade that encouraged trade while creating a series of schools necessary for the training of the specialized staff claimed by the new industry.
The paper explores how enlightened thinking about city making, will develop a set of legal and administrative provisions that will impact on a substantial change, both of housing and urban form.
After the attacks of 17, the population of Barcelona and many tourists have turned to present their respect for the victims. Flowers, candles, objects and written memories, has filled various makeshift altars across the Ramblas. Continue reading The Miró’s pavement of the Ramblas (Barcelona), shrine to the memory
Journal of a gadabout (7) by Dr. A. Remesar
The District of Sant Andreu (Barcelona) has a new space for creation and dissemination of culture. This is the Bostik Factory, an initiative by the architect, photographer and activist Xavier Basiana, the creator of the Ivanow Factory. Continue reading Veritas in simplice: Portraits of an epigram by Judith Massana